The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Computer Users

The recent headline news of the industrial-grade hacking suffered by Sony Pictures Entertainment (currently being blamed on North Korea) has data security on the minds of consumers and corporate executives alike. Some experts theorize that a minimal amount of second-level security could have prevented the embarrassing and costly hack that has brought Sony to its knees (both in terms of reputation and money).

Hard drives crash, theft occurs, natural disasters destroy delicate hardware, viruses infect, and thousands of files are sometimes inadvertently wiped out with a single keystroke or tap of a touchscreen. In the digital domain, we seem to be our own worst enemy. Procrastination, sloppiness, ignorance, or just a lousy attitude toward disaster prevention often conspire to wipe out our most precious digital memories.

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The sad part of this equation is that it can all be prevented. Don’t blame the hard drive crash, because you should have had a backup. Don’t blame that flood or roof leak that damaged the spare bedroom where your computer was residing, because you should have had an offsite backup.

Don’t blame the fact that your data is scattered across several devices, because you should have centralized it. And don’t blame the hacker or the virus they gifted you, because you should have been running good, current anti-malware software.

And don’t ever blame the black hat hackers who guess your pathetically weak passwords and steal your identity or siphon your bank account, because you should have created strong passwords—and then changed them on a regular basis.

Yes, all of these very common, yet very painful, digital disasters can be avoided. The TME (time, money, effort) required to secure the digital side of your life isn’t trivial. However, it’s minor in comparison to the possible (and, over time, probable) consequences of mismanaging your valuable data.

Your precious photos, home videos, and school/work documents—and the delicate devices on which these ones and zeroes are captured, archived, viewed, and shared with others—can be secured more easily than you may think. And with a boatload less effort and trauma than if you suffer a digital disaster.

1) Centralize Your Data

Store your files on a single device. No, not your laptop. And no, not even your desktop. I highly recommend a dedicated network access storage device, also known as a NAS. They’re affordable ($100 to more than $1,000 if you want to get fancy), super easy to use, and make backups a snap.

Cost? A few bucks. Effort? Minimal. Simply unbox the NAS, plug it in, and all your wi-fi and Ethernet-connected devices should recognize it.

2) Backup Your Data

Backup software costs from free (build into Windows or Apple’s OS X desktop operating systems) to a few bucks (Second Copy is a great value at only $30). Remember the three golden rules of data backups: Backup on a regular basis (this depends on the rate at which you acquire new data or modify existing files), always make two backups, and always take one copy offsite. Offsite doesn’t mean your basement. Or your neighbor’s house. It also doesn’t mean the other side of the country. It means far enough away from your domicile (or office) that a flood, tornado, or hurricane won’t affect the offsite copy.

The majority of consumers never—as in never, ever—make a single backup of their data. Of those that do manage a backup now and again, they typically never make two and take one offsite. Aside from backing up in the first place, going offsite is the number one delinquency on the part of data owners and businesses alike.

3) Have a Good Firewall

Many devices on your network may provide a firewall. According to Wikipedia, a firewall is “a network security system that controls…incoming and outgoing network traffic based on an applied rule set. A firewall establishes a barrier between a trusted, secure internal network and another network (e.g., the Internet) that is assumed not to be secure and trusted.” Your internet router probably provides a firewall. Your computers may each provide individual firewalls. But don’t play a guessing game. Know which devices have active firewalls, their basic configuration, and learn if you can improve things by updating the rules by which your firewalls allow and deny incoming traffic.

4) Keep Anti-Virus Software Current

The “a virus ate my homework” horror stories have been pervasive enough for so many years that I perceive most people have anti-malware software installed on most of their computers. There’s no excuse for not having a current subscription going on all computers. Why all? Well, your computers are networked by this groovy wireless technology called wi-fi. A single unprotected PC in your home is a gateway for hackers to gain access to your network and all PCs on it.

And don’t give me the excuse that anti-virus software is too expensive. My favorite (and what I use on all of my Windows computers) is Webroot. I purchased a 3-PC, one-year license for $17 on Amazon. Data security doesn’t get any easier or cheaper than this.

5) Have Unique, Strong Passwords

There’s a reason I dedicated a full chapter to the topic of strong passwords in my book Understanding Personal Data Security. If the state of data backup in the United States sucks, then the quality of the average password is even worse. Consider this January 2014 blog post from Slate.com: “The good news is that ‘password’ is no longer the most-popular password on the Internet, according to the latest report from SplashData. The bad news is that it’s still the second-most common—and ‘123456’ is the first.”

Wow. We’re not doing a very good job of securing our online accounts, folks. In the effort of being terse (not my strong suit), let me sum it up, according to Stanford University’s Password Requirements Quick Guide: Longer passwords are better, but shorter passwords are permissible if they are complex. According to Stanford, this means:

  • 8-11 characters: requires mixed case letters, numbers, and symbols
  • 12-15 characters: requires mixed case letters and numbers
  • 16-19 characters: requires mixed case letters
  • 20+ characters: any characters you like

Those are the requirements. But unless you were one of those kids who was actually happy with a passing grade of a C-, Stanford recommends that passwords are a minimum of 16 characters. But how does one remember such a long password? Stanford recommends using passphrases, which are combinations of common words to create a truly unique and uncommon password. An example is “windowelephantpeachrocket.” This 25-character passphrase is considerably more difficult to crack than the most popular password, “123456,” which can be guessed in about one second by even a relatively inept hacker.

For more information (and a really cool infographic), see Stanford University’s Password Requirements Quick Guide.

6) Respect Your Hardware

Ever see people sitting on their bed with their laptop perched on a quilt or blanket? Completely blocking the air intakes, which typically reside on the bottom or sides of the unit? Overheating is one of the primary ways in which delicate electronics get flakey or die. Prevent overheating by positioning your laptop on a flat surface. For desktop units, ensure that intake ports remain unblocked. Airflow is key!

In fact, here’s a cool trick: Take your vacuum cleaner hose and routinely suck out the air intake and “exhaust” of your laptop and desktop computers (desktop units should actually be taken apart and more thoroughly sucked free of dust and pet hair, if possible). Dust and hair (from both humans and pets) forms a blanket on delicate silicon chips and circuits, insulating them and holding in their heat.

This simple trick can extend the life of your computers more than you’d imagine. Do it now!

7) Avoid Distractions

If you’re trying to get work done, avoid the distraction of too much multi-tasking by closing tabs in your browser or otherwise limiting the potential pestering of social media. That ding in Facebook, saying nothing more than one of your hundreds of friends has commented on a stranger’s post, is costing you productivity. For the duration of your work, seriously consider shutting down your email, Facebook, LinkedIn, Vine, Instagram, Ello, and however else you engage in social media. Your work, career, and boss will thank you.


Curt Robbins is author of the following books from Amazon Kindle:

You can follow him on Twitter at @CurtARobbins, read his AV-related blog posts at rAVe Publications, and view his photos on Flickr.

North Korean Cyber Terrorism: You’re Unprepared

It was revealed yesterday, in an announcement from the FBI, that North Korea was responsible for the recent cyber attack on Sony Pictures Entertainment.

The attack resulted in the public release of thousands of confidential (and embarrassing) email messages and documents involving Sony, its executives, popular celebrities, and many of the entertainment company’s business partners—among other misappropriations of intellectual property. This included various Sony films now freely available on pirate sites. According to Patrick Mahaffey, CEO of software consulting firm Room 5, the Sony hack “may have ushered in a new era of state sponsored terrorism against civilian targets.”

the_interview for linkedinThese acts have also caused the controversial cancellation of the release of Sony’s movie The Interview, the comedy drama that was the motivation for North Korea’s actions. In the movie, the characters portrayed by Seth Rogen and James Franco are enlisted by the American government to assassinate North Korean dictator Kim Jong-un. (Spoiler alert: At the end of the film, the two American spies complete their mission; there’s a viral video excerpt trending on social media if you’re curious.)

North Korea’s actions weren’t financially motivated, but rather purely political in nature. However, they were financially impacting. Kim Jung-un’s third world, impoverished totalitarian regime just cost an American subsidiary of a Japanese company $200-300 million in lost revenue—not to mention a severely tarnished reputation. To put this in perspective, Sony Pictures Entertainment, based in Culver City, California, reported $8 billion in revenue for fiscal year 2014.

On December 15, CNNMoney reported that parent company Sony’s stock had fallen 10 percent due to the incident. Then, on December 17, the FBI announced that it considered the hacking incident a national security threat. On December 19, the event elicited public statements from President Barack Obama, who said that Sony Pictures “made a mistake” in cancelling the release of the film and that the United States would respond to the attack “in a place and manner and time that we choose.”

According to Reuters: “‘North Korea’s ultimate goal in cyber strategy is to be able to attack national infrastructure of South Korea and the United States,’ said Kim Heung-kwang, a defector from the North who was a computer science professor and says he maintains links with the community in his home country.”

The general tone among Americans has been that Sony (and, by extension, Hollywood) spinelessly caved to the influence of a rogue dictator. Echoing the President’s comments, social media has been abuzz with anti-Sony sentiment, and even calls for boycotts.

I would argue that North Korea’s actions amount to a terrorist act on the part of a communist totalitarian nation, in the form of a cyber attack that, akin to an act of war, brought Japanese Sony, American-based Sony Pictures Entertainment, and American partners like Snapchat to their knees. I would also argue that this event can be—in the long run—good for us. Here’s why.

It’s easy to become too internally focused when you’re in one of the most technologically, culturally, and economically advanced nations in the world—and a shining example of democracy and progress, despite all of our internal bickering and ideological and religious contention.

the_interview_3_for_linkedinFortunately, we have organizations like the FBI, CIA, and the military’s various internal counter cyber-terrorism groups. Before you laugh and begin schooling me on how none of these organizations can be trusted (and bring up torture and waterboarding), remember “same team” (and 9/11, if you have a short memory).

This isn’t the time to be pointing out how the family dog crapped on the rug a few times. Rather, we should be thankful that Rover keeps the house safe from intruders and kills pesky rodents before they begin living in the garage or digging into that 50-lb bag of bird seed. It’s our bird seed, dammit, and Rover—rug pooping and all—helps protect it from thieves.

North Korea’s recent acts of cyber terrorism are a wake-up call not only to large corporations like Sony, but also to middle class Americans. Although I’m certainly not an expert on this topic, I don’t think it was a wake-up call to our government’s security agencies or the military. I believe they’re in the loop on this one.

Kim Jong-un for linkedinWe middle class consumers, however, are sloppy with our data and online accounts. Our passwords suck, most of us never backup our data, and asking us about our firewall is like inquiring about the pH balance of our lawn; we simply don’t know. And, all too often, we don’t give a damn. Again, we’re too busy dealing with social media, work headaches, and our kids to bother with the likes of password strength and data backups. As Americans, we’re pinnacle procrastinators. Watching The Voice or True Detectives is more important to us than personal data security. We prove it every day.

The revelation of North Korea’s cyber attack on Sony Pictures proves that we’re much more vulnerable than we think. If a black hat hacker anywhere, foreign or domestic, wants to steal your identity, copy or corrupt your data, or blackmail or embarrass you, even a moderately talented cyber thief can do so with relative ease. The reason it hasn’t happened to you is because you haven’t been targeted. At least, not that you’re aware.

According to Daniel Solove, a research professor of law at George Washington University Law School, “All of our personal data is at significant risk. At home or at work, your personal data is at risk. Whether in the cloud, or on your computer, or in an email, your data is at risk. The internet wasn’t built for security; it is a very risky zone, like wandering a minefield.”

Computer and networking technology, along with the common skills of hackers, have evolved to the point that, regardless of motive, these cyber bad guys can swoop in, steal or corrupt your data, and leave almost no trace. You may have been hacked and have no idea. The IT departments of major retailers like Target, Home Depot, and Neiman Marcus have been hacked and suffered the theft of point-of-sale data for tens of millions of customers. And, in some cases, they barely learned that it happened. If $100 million IT departments are vulnerable, what do you think can happen to you and me?

the_interview_2_for_linkedinThe reason most of us haven’t had our data or personal home networks compromised is simply because we’re not big targets—not because our data or networks are secure. If a frustrated, psychotic co-worker, spurned lover, mean ex-husband, angry neighbor, or pissed-off friend really focused on messing with your data, they could do so with relative ease. It just might involve hiring a savvy teenage nerd to make it happen. Don’t assume, because a person doesn’t possess computer skills, that they can’t be responsible for a data attack on you and your family.

Statistics from a variety of sources indicate that the majority of Americans never (as in never) backup their data. Surveys and metrics also indicate that our passwords—even for things like bank and investment accounts—are pathetically weak. Do you have any “password1234” passwords in your collection? How about a derivation of your name (or your pet’s name)? Do you use the same password, or a slight variation, on all of your accounts? I know; it makes them easier to remember. It also makes you extremely vulnerable to hacking.

There’s plenty of books and resources available to help you improve your data security. I won’t push my book, because the point is simply to get you to improve your personal data security, not necessarily buy something from me. But do something.

james franco for blogCyber terrorism and hacking activities, from governments, large corporations, and individuals, are only going to increase. We’re all susceptible, from Sony Pictures to your next door neighbor. However, there are many things you can do to help prevent digital disaster that results in identity theft, public embarrassment, and financial loss.

Learn about what you can do. Make a plan. Execute it. Maintain your efforts. Be diligent.

Take it seriously.

Did you, or one of your friends, ever run a car out of gas? Wasn’t there a feeling of incredible stupidity and regret? Wasn’t there a realization that a brief stop at a local gas station could have been made oh-so-easily, preventing the embarrassment and expense of your negligence and oversight?

Well, get ready. Because the Sony Pictures hack by North Korea is only the beginning. Organizations and individuals that aren’t prepared will, sooner or later, suffer.

Try not to be one of them.

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Curt Robbins


Curt Robbins is author of the following books from Amazon Kindle:

You can follow him on Twitter at @CurtRobbins, read his AV-related blog posts at rAVe Publications, and view his photos on Flickr.

Cold Storage & Personal Data: Tick, Tick, Tick


[Updated on September 29, 2015]

[This post is a hopeless plug for my new book Understanding Personal Data Security. It’s said that there are two high-level categories of emotional exploitation within most advertising: Greed and fear. In this post, I exploit fear.]


 

I write a lot about electric vehicles, home theater, and personal data security. My grandmother always told me to do what I know. There’s a reason I’m not teaching you how to replace the tranny in your Ford F-150 or giving you advice for that Sunday casserole.

In personal data security, I try to write about topics that center around the real world. Strong passwords, data backup, centralized data storage. That type of thing. The areas of data archival and backup are especially fun. So simple in theory, yet so neglected and difficult in practice. The majority of us (well over 50%) never—as in never—backup our data. It’s truly mind blowing.

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Yet here we are, a culture that totes sleek smartphones and tablets and captures almost exclusively digital photos and video. Instead of going to Walgreens to develop old school film, we upload JPEG images from our mobile devices directly to cloud-based social media like Facebook, Instagram, and Flickr. All while our kids indulge in Kik, Snapchat, Vine, and stuff we’ve never heard of.

Middle class Americans create a lot of data; more and more every day. As an increasing number of us acquire highly capable mobile devices, we automatically begin snapping high-resolution photos and capturing high-definition video—along with meta data like location and people tagging. Just more ones and zeroes. We throw our files up in the cloud, sync with a local computer, or simply ignore our increasingly large treasure trove of digital delights. What was once expensive and somewhat rare is now cheap and plentiful. In the old days, no middle class consumer could afford 100,000 print photos or dozens of hours of home movies.

Now I have those thousands of photos and hundreds of videos sitting on a $200 NAS device on my home network. Amazing. We’re all curators and archivists today, whether we realize it or not.

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Once, back in ’06 or so, I had a hard drive crash on a server computer in my home. Just so happens that server was storing all of my family photos. I shipped it to a special recovery service in Atlanta. But they delivered sad news: It was toast. Unrecoverable. 16 years of family photos down the crapper. Gone.

Forever.

Fortunately, I had a backup. The problem? It was five months old. So yes, I recovered nearly 16 years worth of precious heirloom family photos, videos, and personal data files. The term “relief” doesn’t begin to explain how I felt. But I was still kicking myself for having lost nearly half a year’s worth of digital data.

I’m a picture fiend. We used to be called shutter bugs (back when most cameras featured physical shutters). I love to take tons of casual, unplanned photos on nearly a daily basis. For some people, five months of photos isn’t much. For me, it was thousands of shots and a chunk of the lives of my daughters that I’ll never retrieve. As in never.

A valuable lesson, to say the least. Now you know why I preach about offsite backups and redundant data. Because what happened to me happens to most people. Except most people lose everything.

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I recently joined the artsy no-ads social network Ello. I’m really enjoying the wealth of photography, art, sculptures, 3D-printed objects, poetry, and writing. But the reality is that the vast majority of this creative expression is stored digitally. Statistically, roughly half of this data will eventually be lost to digital devastation. A hard drive will crash. A laptop will be stolen. A fire or flood will occur. Nasty crap. But it happens every day.

And the data will go “poof.” Forever lost. Notice how I keep saying “forever” in terms of lost data and “never” in terms of how often people backup that precious data?

securityWith my head in this mode of OCD data protection, a recent article in Ars Technica naturally caught my attention. A Dutch entrepreneur, Martijn Wismeijer (@twiet), had an NFC (Near Field Communication) chip implanted in each hand. The purpose? To securely store data.

Ironically, this is called “cold storage.” Because of the NFC, this data isn’t static. Using any of dozens of common smartphones or tablets on the market that feature NFC capabilities, this man can update the data stored on the chips in his hands.

Pretty damn cool. Now, I realize a lot of you are getting squeamish at the prospect of having radio frequency-capable memory chips implanted in your body. Can’t say I blame you there (although I think I’d be willing to do this).

But squeamishness aside, why is cold storage so cool? Because it partially deals with the issue of “offsite” backup. Remember 9/11? Remember all the companies that went bankrupt after the physical devastation? Know why most of them went under? They lost all of their customer data. And they lost all of their customer data because their backups were stored onsite.

Cold storage solves this problem. To a certain extent. It’s an interesting model, one where the data resides wherever you happen to be. Home, office, coffee shop, a friend’s house, driving down the 404. Now, I do want to clarify that this man is storing Bitcoin data and the small (2 x 12 millimeters) capsules injected between his thumb and index finger contain very little information. It’s basically just a few bank account numbers. Then again, a photo is just a few (million) pixels with location markers and color assignments.

We all know how this story ends. Storage capacities in all forms of modern media have expanded at an exponential rate. Eventually, these small flesh-injected capsules will sport enough storage to backup all of your personal photos and videos. At which time you’ll have yet another backup option and opportunity to safely archive your precious personal data.

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Until we all get these flesh-based flash drives, however, we still have an ever-increasing volume of valuable personal data that is lost on a daily basis. To date, roughly one-third of computers have crashed and lost all of their data; as in, this has already happened! So, once again, I must reiterate my personal mantra of offsite backup. Weekly, monthly…whatever. You know your habits. I’m not going to tell you how frequently to backup your data. You’re an adult. You wear big girl and big boy pants.

However, what I will tell you: If you don’t make two backup copies of those special memories of your kids, pets, and special events and get them offsite, you’ll eventually lose them. It’s statistically inevitable. Look at the clock on your smartphone or watch and take note of the second hand.

It’s counting down to digital disaster. Tick, tick, tick. Goodbye data. Au revoir precious memories.

The digital demons are coming to get you.

For the time being, you can avoid getting a data capsule stored in your hand. But if you blow off multiple backup copies of your personal data—one of which goes offsite—you won’t avoid losing all of your photos and videos.

Just sayin’.

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Curt Robbins


Curt Robbins is author of the following books from Amazon Kindle:

You can follow him on Twitter at @CurtARobbins, read his AV-related blog posts at rAVe Publications, and view his photos on Flickr.

Personal Data Security: NAS

Today’s blog post is another in the theme of personal data security and an excerpt from my new book Understanding Personal Data Security. We all have lots of data. Statistically, however, nearly half of us never back it up. As in never. But part of the reason for this might be that our data is scattered among many different computers and devices, making the task of backup difficult.security

Part of the solution is to centralize your data. You don’t have to be a Buddhist like Steve Jobs to understand that simple is better than complex. In the case of your personal data and media files, storing and accessing them from a single location on your home network can make the task of backup that much easier. And the best way to centralized your data is with Network Attached Storage.

You might want to also read my previous blog posts Personal Data Security: Backups and 3-2-1 Backup Rule: Get Offsite before diving into this one.

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Curt Robbins


Network Attached Storage

Typically the best way for home networks to centralize data is using a dedicated hard drive that attaches to your home network, usually via your internet/wi-fi router. Called Network Attached Storage, or NAS, this is a special hard drive (or enclosure that holds multiple drives) that has just enough hardware and software wrapped around it that all of the other computers on your network can recognize it and copy, modify, and delete files. A NAS drive, sometimes called a NAS server, is nothing more than a big storage space into which all of your computers dump their data. You can’t install or run applications using such a device. It’s not a full-fledged computer, but simply intelligent network-accessible storage.

NAS servers have been around long enough that prices have fallen to where consumers can easily afford such a device to centralize their data storage. Some NAS devices include backup software, most of which can perform automated incremental backups (you’ll learn more about these topics in the Backups chapter that follows). Personally, my family and I store all of our data on a NAS, giving us a single drive volume to backup.

There are two primary types of NAS devices, each with a different target audience and cost. Entry-level NAS units have one or two fixed hard drives, meaning the disk drive(s) can’t be swapped out and, thus, the capacity of the device can’t be expanded. If you purchase such a “fixed” NAS, you’ll have to purchase a new one when you either run out of space or one of the disks fails. The other, more robust type of NAS features between two and eight open bays, each of which holds a single, removable disk drive. Some multi-drive (also called multi-bay) NAS models are sold diskless (no pre-installed drives), allowing you to use existing drives or purchase your own. It should be noted that there are a few two-drive NAS models on the market that feature fixed disk drives, meaning both drives can’t be replaced when they die.

One of the best solutions, which strikes a nice middle ground, is a multi-bay NAS that is sold pre-populated with removable drives and even preconfigured for data mirroring. This approach allows you to avoid the hassle of purchasing, installing, and configuring hard disk drives for your NAS, but still allows you to upgrade all drives to achieve more storage capacity or replace a single defective drive unit.

Some manufacturers, like Western Digital, offer a NAS solution for nearly every need and budget. For example, the company’s My Cloud Mirror features two fixed drives and a single USB 3.0 port. The My Cloud EX2 (sporting two bays) and My Cloud EX4 (four bays) both offer removable storage and ship with Western Digital’s NAS-optimized Red drives pre-installed and configured for data mirroring (a real-time data replication scheme described below). The EX series also features two USB 3.0 ports, allowing you to create your offsite backups that much faster and reliably (in real-world performance, USB 3.0 is roughly four to ten times faster than USB 2.0). You’ll learn more about reputable NAS models later in this chapter.

RAID

While more expensive, multi-drive NAS devices offer greater flexibility in terms of how you store and backup your data. For example, most multi-drive NAS servers (including both fixed and removable drive models) offer the ability to run a RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks). There are a variety of types, or “levels,” of RAID. According to Wikipedia, “each scheme provides a different balance between the key goals: Reliability and availability, performance, and capacity. RAID levels greater than RAID 0 provide protection against unrecoverable (sector) read errors, as well as whole disk failure.”

It should be noted that a multi-drive RAID setup can also be installed in a PC. The best route, however, is a dedicated NAS plugged into your internet router or Ethernet switch. This saves you the headaches associated with maintaining a full computer and the risks that come with operating it. The likelihood of failure for a PC is greater than for a dedicated NAS server that quietly sits attached to your home network. The NAS will also consume much less power.

Although there are seven levels of RAID multi-drive configuration, only one—RAID 1—is of concern to consumers with home networks. RAID levels 2 through 6 are more performance-oriented and appeal to enterprise organizations trying to do things like optimize database queries and speed real-time online transactions. While your nerdy niece may advocate one of the higher RAID levels, RAID 1 is really all you need.

RAID 1

RAID 1 incorporates mirroring, in which data is written to two or more drives simultaneously to create a “mirrored set.” Thus, if you had a NAS device that supported RAID 1 and featured, say, four drive bays, you could install three drives (leaving one drive bay empty), one of which would be your primary storage and the other two of which would function as your local (onsite) backups that were always current.

RAID 1 illustrates the power of using multiple hard drives in a single drive enclosure (or computer) to protect your data. Think of RAID 1 as a real-time backup system. The disadvantage? This popular RAID standard gives you great onsite data redundancy (and, thus, backup), but does nothing to get your data offsite.


Curt Robbins is author of the following books from Amazon Kindle:

You can follow him on Twitter at @CurtRobbins, read his AV-related blog posts at rAVe Publications, and view his photos on Flickr.

3-2-1 Backup Rule: Get Offsite

HBK11Render (1)In my previous blog post, I provided an excerpt from my new book Understanding Personal Data Security. It was about an element of data security that pertains to everyone, not just power users: Backup. Future blog posts will cover other areas of the book, including viruses and malware, centralized data storage, and strong passwords.

Also check out Personal Data Security: BackupsPersonal Data Security: NAS, and Personal Data Security: Password Basics.


As middle class consumers, we create, collect, consume, and archive a relatively massive amount of data. From our digital photos and high-resolution videos to our music collections and work or school documents, it all resides someplace. Smartphones, tablets, and laptops are the home of most of this data. More often than not, our personal bits and bytes are scattered across multiple devices. It’s typically a mess.

Which means that a solid backup scheme is even more important. Getting all that data archived on a reliable storage device and safely stored is a goal most consumers don’t achieve (or even attempt). Whether through ignorance or just plain laziness, the majority of us (yes, I’m talking about you) don’t have a current and complete backup of our personal data.

As in other areas of life, like dieting, exercise, or even homework, we need a routine. A system. A habit. For personal backup, this digital discipline is embodied in the 3-2-1 Backup Rule.

The 3-2-1 Backup Rule involves three simple steps that will help ensure the integrity and resiliency of your personal files:

  1. Maintain three copies of any important files (a primary and two backups).
  2. Store the backup files on two different media types (such as hard disk + optical media or Dropbox + hard disk) to protect against different types of hazards.
  3. Store one copy offsite.

First, let me make things even easier: You can forget about Step 2. It’s much more important that you focus on adhering to your backup schedule like a religious rite. Backing up digital data is like dieting: Everyone cheats. So instead of attempting to emulate an enterprise organization and worrying about different media types for your multiple backups, let’s step back and simply worry about creating your backups with regularity in the first place.

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Three copies? Why three copies, Curt? Isn’t backup about the main data and a backup copy—used to restore the main data if it becomes corrupted, accidentally deleted, or the device on which it’s stored craps the bed? Yes, at a high level, that’s the goal. However, the reality is that you must store a copy offsite. Get it the heck out of your house or office.

Why? Because the event that destroys your primary data could very likely also damage or destroy your backup copy. Have you or anyone you’ve known suffered flooding? How about a fire? What about theft? While less common, what about tornadoes, hurricanes, and typhoons?

During the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks on New York City, hundreds of businesses were severely compromised because their backup copies resided in the same location as their primary data. When buildings were severely damaged or even collapsed, both the primary and backup copies were destroyed. As a result, many of these businesses went bankrupt. One simple deficiency affected the jobs of thousands of Americans and service to millions of customers.

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Most consumers, when considering the backup of their personal data, erroneously think that offsite backup is only for enterprise organizations. It’s not. Offsite backup is essential for anyone. Fire, flooding, and theft is simply too common. And your personal data too precious.

Everyone creates or collects data at a different rate. Some people (like me) take photos or videos on nearly a daily basis. Most of us do so several times per week. Thus, the frequency of your backup schedule is subjective. But regardless of that schedule, you need to stay true to it. If our doctor said, “If you don’t stick to this diet, you’re going to die in a month,” most of us would stick to the diet. Likewise, if I told you that, if you don’t stick to your backup schedule, you’re virtually guaranteed to lose some or all of your valuable data, how would you respond?

When considering an offsite storage location, ensure that it’s far enough from your house that it won’t be affected by whatever takes out your primary data. Thus, a shed in your backyard isn’t an option. Neither is the glove box in your car that’s sitting in your garage or driveway. Consider a safety deposit box, your office or school, or the house of a friend or family member. But just get it the heck out of your house and out of your neighborhood.

However, don’t go so far offsite that it becomes difficult to maintain your offsite swap schedule. Assume you make a backup once a week. Thus, you would also need to take a copy to the offsite location once per week. If that site is three hours away at your parents’ house, it becomes impractical and simply won’t happen. Think practical. Think doable.

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Consider your lifestyle and personal habits. Don’t allow theory to overtake reality and craft a backup strategy to which you’ll never adhere. Remember: You have to maintain your backup scheme forever. Being diligent for only a few months and then gradually forgetting or getting lazy means you’ll still eventually lose data. It’s just the sad reality of how it works.

Surveys and studies reveal that 35-40% of Americans never—as in never—backup their data in any way. According to Pivotal IT, 140,000 computer hard drives fail every week in the United States, destroying data. Losing precious memories of loved ones or special events sucks (let alone tax records and work documents).

You may or may not suffer from OCD, but in the case of the backup of your personal data, you might want to start getting obsessed. If not, you’ll be crying in your beer because those kindergarten photos of your kids or that novel-in-progress just got sent to digital hell.

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Curt Robbins


Curt Robbins is author of the following books from Amazon Kindle:

You can follow him on Twitter at @CurtARobbins, read his AV-related blog posts at rAVe Publications, and view his photos on Flickr.

Personal Data Security: Backups

Today’s blog post is an excerpt from my book Understanding Personal Data Security. It’s straightforward and a very quick read. It covers four areas of personal data security: Centralized data, backups, passwords, and viruses/malware. Below, you’ll find a section from Chapter 3: Backups.HBK11Render (1)

Future blog posts will provide excerpts from the other core chapters of the book, including Chapter 2: Centralized Data, Chapter 4: Passwords, and Chapter 5: Viruses & Malware. Also check out Personal Data Security: NAS and 3-2-1 Backup Rule: Get Offsite.

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Curt Robbins


Scary Stats

In 2011, website Backblaze conducted a data backup survey, learning that only 7% of respondents performed daily backups. It also found that 35% of computer owners never backed up their data. 51% of owners backup less than once a year. 31% of PC users have lost all of their data files. According to photographer Peter Krogh, a vocal proponent of regular backups, there are two groups of people: Those who have already suffered a storage failure and those who will experience one in the future.

In 2012, anti-virus company Trend Micro released a study of 1,000 Americans that revealed that 40% of them never—as in never-–backup their data (results very similar to those revealed by the Backblaze survey). If their hard drive crashed tomorrow, nearly half of all people would lose everything. Interestingly, half of respondents reported being married. Yet, 83% of those married didn’t have a backup of their wedding photos (they can’t all be on the verge of divorce)!

In August 2014, it was reported that Russian hackers had amassed a database of 1.2 billion (as in billion) stolen user names and passwords and had gained access to half a billion email accounts. According to Hold Security, the combined attacks reached every area of the web and more than 400,000 websites. The New York Times hired an independent security expert, who verified the authenticity of the stolen account information. “Before, we were amazed when 10,000 passwords [went] missing,” said Alex Holden, Hold Security’s chief information security officer. “Now we’re in the age of mass production of stolen information.”


If you haven’t suffered a data failure (and with it, forever lost some precious memories of loved ones and special occasions), try to avoid being one of the sad people who are good at conducting regular backups because they have experienced such digital disaster. If you haven’t suffered a loss, take it from one-third of your friends, family, and co-workers: It sucks. The relatively minor investments of time and money you will make in educating yourself and securing your data can prevent all of the heartache of those who have suffered “catastrophic data loss.”

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Regardless of the efficiency of your backup plan, don’t be afraid to spend some money on the best hardware you can afford (in the case of backups, this would be the NAS [Network Attached Storage] and internal and external disk drives). Again, you’re protecting your cherished digital photo albums and home videos—not to mention other important files, like legal documents, school papers, and heirloom family recipes.

Secure Backup Rules

Following the simple rules below will help you create a successful backup plan that can be executed on a regular basis. Should disaster strike and your primary hard drive craps the bed, these rules will also help ensure a smooth and successful restoration of the data from the backup device or service.

  • Backup either daily, weekly, or bi-weekly (depending on how frequently you create or acquire new data).
  • Create two backups, one for onsite storage and one for offsite.
  • Determine and strictly adhere to an offsite storage schedule.
  • Do not encrypt or compress your backups.
  • Automate your backup(s). This is child’s play with the available software. Do not assume you will run a manual backup with regularity and passion. You won’t.
  • Even if you have very little data to backup, don’t use a USB flash drive, which is slower and less reliable in the long run than hard disk drives.
  • Perform incremental backups (described below).

Assume the hard drive (or drives) on which you store your important personal data crashes tomorrow. Will you lose data? How much? This is really the litmus test. If your primary data storage (called your master data or primary copy) crashed and burned an hour from now, how would it affect you? If this happened to the majority of people, they would lose most or all of their data. In other words, most people have either zero backup or an old, out-of-date copy.

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Local vs. Cloud Backup

There are two primary types of backups: Local (comprised of both onsite and offsite copies) and cloud-based. Local backup simply involves copying your primary data to a hard drive hanging off a computer sitting on your home network or a redundant drive in a RAID 1 NAS. Cloud backup means using your broadband connection to upload your data to be backed up to a remote server somewhere on the internet. Dozens of companies offer consumer-grade online, or “cloud” based backup services. To learn more about cloud-based backup, see the Cloud Backup section below. [Sorry, you’ll have to buy the book for that one.]


Curt Robbins is a technical writing consultant and instructional designer who is author of the following books from Amazon Kindle:

You can follow him on Twitter at @CurtARobbins, read his AV-related blog posts at rAVe Publications, and view his photos on Flickr.